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Water pretreatment
Dirt, large particles and sediment are removed by a 5 micron FF sediment filter during the pretreatment process. Remaining organic particles are then filtered out by a carbon FF filter.

 

Disinfection
The filtered water is then disinfected by an UV water treatment device. UV treated water inhibits bacterial growth on water softener resins and Reverse Osmosis membranes. The UV lamp has 9000 hours of lamp operation.

 

Water softening and demineralization
Reverse Osmosis is extremely effective at providing mineral-free water. A Reverse Osmosis system is best used in combination with a water softener. Decalcified water prevents fouling of the semi-permeable membranes of the Reverse Osmosis system.

 

A Twin water softener is used to reduce the dissolved metal ions such as calcium and magnesium. As the resins of the water softener become loaded with unwanted cations and anions, they gradually become less effective and must be regenerated. When one tank is regenerated, another one comes into operation.

 

A Reverse Osmosis system is equipped with a control panel and auto flush. Before the RO system proceeds with the production, the remaining water from the membranes is first flushed out by the auto flush function. When the storage tank is full, the device is shut off by the level switch.

 

Deionization and storage
The water filtered by the Reverse Osmosis device still contains some unwanted ions. These ions are removed by a mixed bed DI filter. The mixed bed filter contains a resin which removes both cations and anions. The particles which are not filtered out by the DI filter are then removed by a 0.2 micron high filter. The water is then stored in a 300 gallon polyethylene tank.

 

Distribution and circulation
The dialysis water is distributed by a synthetic pump which is led through a looped conduit. To guarantee optimal quality of the retour water, the water is continuously filtered by first a DI filter (deionization) and then a high purity filter (remaining particles). From the looped conduit the faucets arise for the chairs.

 

Sanitation looped conduit
Hot water is used for the frequent sanitation of the looped conduit. A heat sanitizer is installed in the looped conduit and at set times the hot water is circulated for several hours through the looped conduit.